Iowa’s most significant soybean insect pest, soybean aphid, has host-alternating biology. This species has multiple, overlapping generations on soybean in the summer and moves to buckthorn in the winter. Fall migration to buckthorn is based on senescing soybean, and decreasing temperatures and photoperiod. For the majority of the year, soybean aphids are cold-hardy eggs near buckthorn buds (Photo 1). As spring temperatures warm up, soybean aphid eggs hatch and produce a few generations on buckthorn before moving to soybean (Photo 2). Tilmon et al. (2011) goes into more detail about the life cycle and biology of soybean aphid.
Iowa State University
Hodgson, Erin, "Soybean Aphid Egg Hatch Predicted in Northern Iowa" (2018). Integrated Crop Management News. 2498.
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