Campus Units

Electrical and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering

Document Type

Article

Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date

6-25-2021

Journal or Book Title

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics

DOI

10.1109/TMAG.2021.3092370

Abstract

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat certain neurological disorders. When comparing TMS to techniques with similar desired outcomes, such as conventional brain surgery, TMS has far fewer risks due to its non-invasive nature. TMS works by inducing an electric field (E-field) that polarizes or depolarizes brain tissues depending on treatment mode. The human brain reaches 90 % of its adult volume at about age six and does not reach full maturity until approximately 25 years. The differences in the brain volume from adolescents to adults could alter the effectiveness of TMS, primarily because the coils have been designed for use on adult patients. Therefore, comparing the efficacy of TMS coils across age groups to determine if the difference in brain volume is enough to warrant specific TMS treatment protocols for adolescents is of the essence in advancing TMS research. In this research, the authors compare the use of a novel TMS coil design, quadruple butterfly coil (QBC), across different age groups to test the effectiveness of the coil on various stages of brain development. Simulations were run using a finite element analysis software, Sim4Life. Besides age and brain (grey matter) volume, the authors also considered other factors such as the brain-scalp distance (BSD), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) thickness, scalp thickness, skull thickness, and skull volume of the human models in the analysis. This study provides an understanding of the various factors contributing to the response from TMS. The maximum E-field intensity on the scalp (E-Max scalp), maximum E-field intensity on the brain (E-Max brain), and the proportion of the E-Max brain to E-Max scalp were parameters considered in this analysis.

Comments

This is a manuscript of an article published as Afuwape, Oluwaponmile F., Jenna Runge, and David C. Jiles. "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: the effect of age and other factors on the intensity of the Quadruple Butterfly Coil." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2021). DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2021.3092370. Posted with permission.

Rights

© 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

Copyright Owner

IEEE

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

Published Version

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