Document Type


Publication Date





Increased awareness and concern for environmental quality in recent years has increased pressure on farmers to develop and utilize methods to minimize the environmental impact of their production activities. The use of manure produced by livestock enterprises to meet crop nutrient needs is one method that has been used to reach these sustainable environmental goals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impact on returns of using swine manure to meet crop nutrient needs on a typical midwest crop/livestock farm.

An important concern of farmers in a crop/livestock operation such as the one in this study is the lack of sufficient time to apply the manure during labor intensive periods in the crop enterprises: Availability of nutrients in the manure is highest when it is applied in the spring. This is the time when crops also require labor for planting operations. This research evaluates the economic trade-offs of hiring labor to meet labor needis of all the enterprises during these periods, minimize costs and provide a foundation for a sustainable production system

Published As

This paper is published in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Vol. 217