Animal health issues have been receiving increased attention both domestically and internationally. Moreover, the issues are not simply healthy or unhealthy animals, presence or absence of disease, or complete or partial control, The answers are not easy nor simple. It is not easy nor control is best or prevention is best. For every producer, for every species, for every dis ease, there can be a different level of control strategy which is best. The complexity of animal health comes from the fact that it usually interfaces with a variety of livestock species. Additionally, livestock production systems are quite diverse varying from the most rudimentary to highly sophisticated capital intensive confinement systems. Diseases too can result in a range of outcomes from only slight reductions in productivity to animal death. Level of management also impacts on animal disease levels. Its impact can be felt in such diverse spheres as international sales, producer profitability, and human health.
Kliebenstein, James and Walker, Kevin, "An Analysis of Average and Marginal Costs of Iowa School Districts" (1988). Economic Staff Paper Series. 209.