Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Date


Working Paper Number

WP #03027, December 2003


This paper examines immigration trends and economic impacts of immigration on the Midwest over the 1990s, especially for rural and agricultural labor markets and places them in context relative to changes in California, Florida, and Texas and the whole United States. The 1990s was a period of rapid change, and it seem likely that new immigrants will not be assimilated quickly because a majority of them have low education, do not speak English well, or know the local culture. The paper concludes that the U.S. should consider a new immigration policy that gives greater weight to skill and financial capital.

File Format



35 pages