Campus Units

Education, School of, Center for Technology in Learning and Teaching

Document Type


Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

The Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication




1 & 2


New forms of electronic media have enabled the creation of virtual classrooms in K-12 schools across the U.S. The virtual schooling (VS) movement, in which courses are offered mostly or completely via distance technologies, is expanding rapidly, yet many educators who work in these environments receive little or no foundation for effectively communicating with students at a distance. This paper codifies our current thinking on communication demands for K-12 VS teachers, designers, and facilitators, and provides a conceptual framework to ground further research and development in this critical aspect of virtual schooling. Communication theories which have direct application to the design and implementation of VS can inform practice and enhance the experience of students and teachers who participate in this increasingly common educational option. In this paper we provide an overview of how communication theories can be applied as a lens to inform VS practice.


This article is published as Harms, Chad M., Dale S. Niederhauser, Niki E. Davis, M. D. Roblyer, and Stephen B. Gilbert. "Educating educators for virtual schooling: Communicating roles and responsibilities." Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication 16, no. 1& 2 (2006). Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, Inc.



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