Andrew H. Paterson, University of Georgia
Jonathan F. Wendel, Iowa State UniversityFollow
Heidrun Gundlach, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH)
Hui Guo, University of Georgia
Jerry Jenkins, United States Department of Energy
Dianchuan Jin, Hebei United University
Danny Llewellyn, CSIRO Plant Industry
Kurtis C. Showmaker, Mississippi State University
Shengqiang Shu, United States Department of Energy
Joshua A. Udall, Brigham Young University - Provo
Mijeong Yoo, Iowa State University
Robert Byers, Brigham Young University - Provo
Wei Chen, Hebei United University
Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Agricultural Research Organization
Mary V. Duke, United States Department of Agriculture
Lei Gong, Iowa State University
Jane Grimwood, United States Department of Energy
Corrinne E. Grover, Iowa State UniversityFollow
Kara Grupp, Iowa State University
Guanjing Hu, Iowa State UniversityFollow
Tae-ho Lee, University of Georgia
Jingping Li, University of Georgia
Lifeng Lin, University of Georgia
Tao Liu, Hebei United University
Barry S. Marler, University of Georgia
Justin T. Page, Brigham Young University - Provo
Alison W. Roberts, University of Rhode Island
Elisson Romanel, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)
William S. Sanders, Mississippi State University
Emmanuel Szadkowski, Iowa State University
Xu Tan, University of Georgia
Haibao Tang, University of Georgia
Chunming Xu, Iowa State University
Jinpeng Wang, Hebei United University
Zining Wang, University of Georgia
Dong Zhang, University of Georgia
Lan Zhang, Hebei United University
Hamid Ashrafi, University of California - Davis
Frank Bedon, CSIRO Plant Industry
John E. Bowers, University of Georgia
Curt L. Brubaker, CSIRO Plant Industry
Peng W. Chee, University of Georgia
Sayan Das, University of Georgia
Alan R. Gingle, University of Georgia
Candace Haigler, North Carolina State University
David Harker, Brigham Young University - Provo
Lucia V. Hoffmann, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Algodão, EMBRAPA
Ran Hovav, Agricultural Research Organization
Donald C. Jones, Cotton Incorporated
Cornelia Lemke, University of Georgia
Shahid Mansoor, University of Georgia
Mehboob ur Rahman, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering
Lisa N. Rainville, University of Georgia
Aditi Rambani, Brigham Young University - Provo
Umesh K. Reddy, West Virginia State University
Jun-kang Rong, University of Georgia
Jehoshua Saranga, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Brian E. Scheffler, United States Department of Agriculture
Jodi A. Scheffler, United States Department of Agriculture
David M. Stelly, Texas A&M University
Barbara A. Triplett, United States Department of Agriculture
Allen Van Deynze, University of California - Davis
Maite F. S. Vaslin, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)
Vijay N. Waghmare, Central Institute for Cotton Research
Sally A. Walford, CSIRO Plant Industry
Robert J. Wright, Texas Tech University
Essam A. Zaki, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Research Institute
Tianzhen Zhang, Nanjing Agricultural University
Elizabeth S. Dennis, CSIRO Plant Industry
Klaus F. X. Mayer, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH)
Daniel G. Peterson, Mississippi State University
Daniel S. Rokhsar, United States Department of Energy
Xiyin Wang, University of Georgia
Jeremy Schmutz, United States Department of Energy

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Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments1. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1–2 Myr ago2, conferred about 30–36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica3 among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibredGossypium herbaceum A and non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum AtDt (in which ‘t’ indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and the Old World A-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups.


This article is from Nature 492 (2012): 423, doi:10.1038/nature11798.


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