Campus Units

English

Document Type

Article

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date

11-1998

Journal or Book Title

Research in the Teaching of English

Volume

23

Issue

4

First Page

399

Last Page

423

Abstract

The cooperation movement (c. 1900-1930) was the first in a series of twentieth century attempts to broaden responsibility for language instruction by involving faculty across the curriculum, the most recent of which is the current writing-across-the-curriculum movement. Cooperation in language instruction was another of the widespread urban educational reforms of the Progressive Era (c. 1900-1920). Cooperation was fundamentally a response to the new structural and curricular differentiation of modern secondary and higher education, which in turn reflected the specialization of knowledge and work in urban industrial society. Its theory shaped by organicist social thought, its practice by scientific management, the movement influenced writing instruction not only in comprehensive secondary schools and universities, but also in vocational, technical, and professional schools, in settlement houses, and in adult extension classes (particularly those for immigrants). Though the cooperation movement finally had little effect on writing instruction in the 1930s and beyond, it raised central issues of curricular organization and language pedagogy to which later reformers returned.

Comments

Published as Russell, David R. "The Cooperation Movement: Writing and Mass Education, 1890-1930." Research in the Teaching of English 23 (December 1989): 399-423. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

National Council of Teachers of English

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

Share

COinS