Follow

Submissions from 2019

PDF

Ecological and Societal Services of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler and Gregory W. Courtney

PDF

Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), Maria Teresa Fernandez-Luna, Pavan Kumar, David G. Hall, Ashaki D. Mitchell, Michael B. Blackburn, and Bryony C. Bonning

PDF

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2018, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Plant essential oils synergize various pyrethroid insecticides and antagonize malathion in Aedes aegypti, E. J. Norris, A. D. Gross, L. C. Bartholomay, and J. R. Coats

PDF

Effects of larval density on dispersal and fecundity of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, and Thomas W. Sappington

Submissions from 2018

PDF

Advances in aquatic insect systematics and biodiversity in the Neotropics: introduction, David E. Bowles and Gregory W. Courtney

PDF

Menthol acts as a positive allosteric modulator on nematode levamisole sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Shivani Choudhary, Djordje S. Marjianović, Colin R. Wong, Xiaoyu Zhang, Melanie Abongwa, Joel R. Coats, Saša M. Trailović, Richard J. Martin, and Alan P. Robertson

PDF

Effects of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi on soybean aphid and identification of Metarhizium isolates from agricultural fields, Eric H. Clifton; Stefan T, Jaronski; Brad S. Coates; Erin W. Hodgson; and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Genomic mechanisms of sympatric ecological and sexual divergence in a model agricultural pest, the European corn borer, Brad S. Coates, Erik B. Dopman, Kevin W. Wanner, and Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

Using Immediate Feedback to Improve Short-Term Learning in Extension, Erin W. Hodgson

PDF

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2017, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Transcytosis of Junonia coenia densovirus VP4 across the gut epithelium of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Mariah Kemmerer and Bryony Bonning

PDF

Management of Insecticide-Resistant Soybean Aphids in the Upper Midwest of the United States, Robert L. Koch, Erin W. Hodgson, Janet J. Knodel, Adam J. Varenhorst, and Bruce D. Potter

PDF

Tissue-specific transcription of proteases and nucleases across the accessory salivary gland, principal salivary gland and gut of Nezara viridula, Sijun Liu, Purushottam R. Lomate, and Bryony C. Bonning

PDF

Colonization history of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) in North America: insights from random forest ABC using microsatellite data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, and Thomas Guillemaud

PDF

Current and Future Repellent Technologies: The Potential of Spatial Repellents and Their Place in Mosquito-Borne Disease Control, Edmund J. Norris and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Monarch Butterflies Show Differential Utilization of Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria Marie Pocius, John M. Pleasants, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury, and Sue L. Blodgett

PDF

Monarch butterflies do not place all of their eggs in one basket: oviposition on nine Midwestern milkweed species, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, John M. Pleasants, Keith G. Bidne, and Richard L. Hellmich

PDF

Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm females, Angela M. Rovnyak, Charles S. Burks, Aaron J. Gassmann, and Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

Migratory flight of insect pests within a year-round distribution: European corn borer as a case study, Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

Evaluation of the Constituents of Vetiver Oil Against Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), a Malaria Vector in Thailand, Rungarun Tisgratog, Chutipong Sukkanon, John P. Grieco, Unchalee Sanguanpong, Kamlesh R. Chauhan, Joel R. Coats, and Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap

Submissions from 2017

PDF

Dissipation of double‐stranded RNA in aquatic microcosms, Vurtice C. Albright III, Colin R. Wong, Richard L. Hellmich, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Farmers’ perspectives on resistance in western corn rootworm to CRW-Bt corn in Midwest USA, David A. Andow, Robert J. Wright, Erin W. Hodgson, Thomas E. Hunt, and Kenneth R. Ostlie

PDF

Interaction of plant essential oil terpenoids with the southern cattle tick tyramine receptor: A potential biopesticide target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2016, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Phytoecdysteroids as antifeedants towards several beetles that include polyphagous and monophagous feeding guilds, Russell A. Jurenka, Kathryn Russell, and Matthew E. O'Neal

PDF

Late-phase immune responses limiting oocyst survival are independent of TEP1 function yet display strain specific differences in Anopheles gambiae, Hyeogsun Kwon, Benjamin R. Arends, and Ryan C. Smith

PDF

Genome Sequence of a Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA Virus Isolated from Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Sijun Liu, Yuting Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, and Bryony C. Bonning

PDF

Genome Sequence of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera virus 2, a Novel Small RNA Virus of the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Sijun Liu, Yuting Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, and Bryony C. Bonning

PDF

Genome Sequence of the First Coleopteran Iflavirus Isolated from Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Sijun Liu, Yuting Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, and Bryony C. Bonning

PDF

Role of dispersal in resistance evolution and spread, Nicholas J. Miller and Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

Dietary Risk Assessment of v-ATPase A dsRNAs on Monarch Butterfly Larvae, Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Blair D. Siegfried, and Xuguo Zhou

PDF

Fitness costs associated with Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer, J. L. Petzold-Maxwell, B. D. Siegfried, R. L. Hellmich, C. A. Abel, B. S. Coates, T. A. Spencer, R. J. Horikoshi, and A. J. Gassmann

PDF

Performance of Early Instar Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) on Nine Milkweed Species Native to Iowa, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, and Frances K. Hunter

PDF

Population Projection and Development of the Mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as Affected by Temperature: Application of an Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table, Jianyang Qin, Lei Zhang, Yueqiu Liu, Thomas W. Sappington, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, and Xingfu Jiang

PDF

Application of kin theory to long-standing problem in nematode production for biocontrol, Thomas W. Sappington and Ruth A. Hufbauer

PDF

Editorial overview: Pests and resistance: Shedding the albatross of resistance starts by embracing the ecological complexities of its evolution, Thomas W. Sappington and Nicholas J. Miller

Submissions from 2016

PDF

A Review of Cry Protein Detection with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays, Vurtice C. Albright III, Richard L. Hellmich, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay detection and bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein fragments, Vurtice C. Albright III, Richard L. Hellmich, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Development of a Model System Approach for Generating Fragments of the Cry1Ab Protein, Vurtice Albright III, Richard L. Hellmich, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Early Detection and Mitigation of Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), David A. Andow, Steven G. Pueppke, Arthur W. Schaafsma, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington, Lance J. Meinke, Paul D. Mitchell, Terrance M. Hurley, Richard L. Hellmich, and R. Pat Porter

PDF

Onset of Oviposition Triggers Abrupt Reduction in Migratory Flight Behavior and Flight Muscle in the Female Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang, and Andrei N. Frolov

PDF

Quantitative trait locus mapping and functional genomics of an organophosphate resistance trait in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, B. S. Coates, A. P. Alves, H. Wang, X. Zhou, T. Nowatzki, H. Chen, M. Rangasamy, H. M. Robertson, C. W. Whitfield, K. K. Walden, S. D. Kachman, B .W. French, L. J. Meinke, D. Hawthorne, C. A. Abel, T. W. Sappington, B. D. Siegfried, and N. J. Miller

PDF

Editorial overview: Insect phylogenetics: an expanding toolbox to resolve evolutionary questions, Gregory W. Courtney and Brian M. Wiegmann

PDF

Effects of refuges on the evolution of resistance to transgenic corn by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Jennifer Deitloff, Mike W. Dunbar, David A. Ingber, Bruce E. Hibbard, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation, Adam G. Dolezal, Stephan D. Hendrix, Nicole A. Scavo, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Mary A. Harris, M. Joseph Wheelock, Matthew E. O'Neal, and Amy L. Toth

PDF

Evidence of Resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Root Injury in the Field and Larval Survival in Plant-Based Bioassays, Aaron J. Gassmann, Ram B. Shrestha, Siva R. K. Jakka, Mike W. Dunbar, Eric H. Clifton, Aubrey R. Paolino, David A. Ingber, B. Wade French, Kenneth E. Masloski, John W. Dounda, and Coy R. St. Clair

PDF

Field trials to evaluate the effects of transgenic cry1Ie maize on the community characteristics of arthropod natural enemies, Jingfei Guo, Kanglai He, Richard L. Hellmich, Shuxiong Bai, Tiantao Zhang, Yunjun Liu, Tofael Ahmed, and Zhenying Wang

PDF

The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, and Anthony M. Shelton

PDF

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2015, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector, Joseph E. Huesing, David Andres, Michael P. Braverman, Andrea Burns, Allan S. Felsot, George G. Harrigan, Richard L. Hellmich, Alan Reynolds, Anthony M. Shelton, Wilna Jansen van Rijssen, E. Jane Morris, and Jacobus N. Eloff

PDF

Broad-spectrum resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), Siva R. K. Jakka, Ram B. Shrestha, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Biocontrol of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata, by the tachinid fly Exorista civilis is synergized by Cry1Ab protoxin, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang, Haixia Yang, Thomas W. Sappington, Yunxia Cheng, and Li zhi Luo

PDF

Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Bryony C. Bonning, and Robert L. Harrison

PDF

Leucokinin mimetic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron, Hyeogsun Kwon, Moutaz Ali Agha, Ryan C. Smith, Ronald J. Nachman, Frederic Marion-Poll, and Patricia V. Pietrantonio

PDF

Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites, Alessandra S. Orfano, Rafaek Nacif-Pimenta, Ana P.M. Durate, Luis M. Villegas, Nilton B. Rodrigues, Luciana C. Pinto, Keillen M.M. Campos, Yudi T. Pinilla, Barbara Chaves, Maria G.V. Barbosa Guerra, Wuelton M. Monteiro, Ryan C. Smith, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Marcus V.G. Lacerda, Nagila F.C. Secundino, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, Carolina Barillas-Mury, and Paulo F.P. Pimenta

PDF

Field-Based Assessment of Resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Ram B. Shrestha, Sive R. K. Jakka, B. Wade French, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Plasmodium Oocysts: Overlooked Targets of Mosquito Immunity, Ryan C. Smith and Caroline Barillas-Mury

PDF

Molecular Profiling of Phagocytic Immune Cells in Anopheles gambiae Reveals Integral Roles for Hemocytes in Mosquito Innate Immunity, Ryan C. Smith, Jonas King, Dingyin Tao, Oana A. Zekeznik, Carla Brando, Gerard G. Thallinger, and Rhoel R. Dinglasan

PDF

Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity, Jihong Tang, Yunxia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang, and Lizhi Luo

PDF

The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control, A. J. Varenhorst and M. E. O'Neal

PDF

Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms, Michael Wach, Richard L. Hellmich, Raymond Layton, Jörg Romeis, and Patricia G. Gadaleta

PDF

Insect Pollinators in Iowa Cornfields: Community Identification and Trapping Method Analysis, M. J. Wheelock and M. E. O'Neal

Submissions from 2015

PDF

Susceptibility to Bt Proteins is not Required for Agrotis ipsilon Aversion to Bt Maize, Rachel Renee Binning, Joel R. Coats, Xiaoxiao Kong, and Richard L. Hellmich II

PDF

Response of Reproductive Traits and Longevity of Beet Webworm to Temperature, and Implications for Migration, Yunxia Cheng, Kai Wang, Thomas W. Sappington, Lizhi Luo, and Xingfu Jiang

PDF

Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T. Jaronski, Erin W. Hodgson, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Geographic Distribution of Soybean Aphid Biotypes in the United States and Canada during 2008–2010, Susannah G. Cooper, Vergel Concibido, Ronald Estes, David Hunt, Guo-Liang Jiang, Christian Krupke, Brian McCornack, Rouf Mian, Matthew O'Neal, Vaino Poysa, Deirdre Prischmann-Voldseth, David Ragsdale, Nick Tinsley, and Dechun Wang

PDF

Perspectives of Extension Agents and Farmers Toward Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States Corn Belt, John W. Doudna, Matthew E. O'Neal, John C. Tyndall, and Matthew J. Helmers

PDF

Effect of Seed Blends and Soil-Insecticide on Western and Northern Corn Rootworm Emergence from mCry3A + eCry3.1Ab Bt Maize, Daniel L. Frank, Ryan Kurtz, Nicholas A. Tinsley, Aaron J. Gassmann, Lance J. Meinke, Daniel Moellenbeck, Michael E. Gray, Larry W. Bledsoe, Christian H. Krupke, Ronald E. Estes, Patrick Weber, and Bruce E. Hibbard

PDF

Survey of Soybean Insect Pollinators: Community Identification and Sampling Method Analysis, K. A. Gill and M. E. O'Neal

PDF

Pharmacological Characterization of a Tyramine Receptor from the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin G. Temeyer, Timothy A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2014, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Farmer Responses to Resistance Issues in Corn Rootworm to Bt Corn: Qualitative Analysis of Focus Groups, Erin W. Hodgson, Robert Wright, Michael Gray, Tom Hunt, Ken Ostlie, and David A. Andow

PDF

Fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, A. M. Hoffmann, B. W. French, R. L. Hellmich, N. Lauter, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

The PRXamide Neuropeptide Signalling System: Conserved in Animals, Russell A. Jurenka

PDF

Haplotype Profile Comparisons Between Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations From Mexico With Those From Puerto Rico, South America, and the United States and Their Implications to Migratory Behavior, Rodney N. Nagoshi, Ninfa M. Rosas-García, Robert L. Meagher, Shelby J. Fleischer, John K. Westbrook, Thomas W. Sappington, Mirian Hay-Roe, Jean M. G. Thomas, and Gabriela M. Murúa

PDF

Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), Edmund J. Norris, Aaron D. Gross, Brendan M. Dunphy, Steven Bessette, Lyric Bartholomay, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), a Migrating Bio-Indicator, Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Blair D. Siegfried, and Xuguo Zhou

PDF

Bacillus thuringiensis plants expressing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F are not toxic to the assassin bug, Zelus renardii, H.-H. Su, J.-C. Tian, S. E. Naranjo, J. Romeis, Richard L. Hellmich, and A. M. Shelton

PDF

Determining the duration of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) induced susceptibility effect in soybean, Adam J. Varenhorst, Michael T. McCarville, and Matthew E. O'Neal

PDF

Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean, Adam J. Varenhorst, Michael T. McCarville, and Matthew E. O'Neal

PDF

Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events, David S. Wangila, Aaron J. Gassmann, Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, B. Wade French, and Lance J. Meinke

PDF

Mating for male-derived prostaglandin: a functional explanation for the increased fecundity of mated female crickets?, Amy M. Worthington, Russell A. Jurenka, and Clint D. Kelly

PDF

Accelerated and Synchronized Oviposition Induced by Flight of Young Females May Intensify Larval Outbreaks of the Rice Leaf Roller, Lei Zhang, Pan Pan, Thomas W. Sappington, Weixiang Lu, Lizhi Luo, and Xingfu Jiang

Submissions from 2014

PDF

Susceptibility and Aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt Maize and Considerations for Insect Resistance Management, Rachel Renee Binning, Joel R. Coats, Xiaoxiao Kong, and Richard L. Hellmich

PDF

Proliferation and copy number variation of BEL-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons within the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera genome, Brad S. Coates, Lisa M. Fraser, B. Wade French, and Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

The Impact of Prairie Strips on Aphidophagous Predator Abundance and Soybean Aphid Predation in Agricultural Catchments, Rachael Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal, Rene Hessel, Lisa A. Schulte, and Matthew J. Helmers

PDF

Inheritance of an extended diapause trait in the Northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), B. W. French, Brad S. Coates, and Thomas W. Sappington

PDF

Quality Over Quantity: Buffer Strips can be Improved with Select Native Plant Species, Kelly Ann Gill, R. Cox, and Matthew E. O'Neal

PDF

G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) as Biopesticide Targets: A Focus on Octopamine and Tyramine Receptors, Aaron D. Gross, Michael J. Kimber, and Joel R. Coats

PDF

Pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of mosquitoes, Erica Hellmich, Tyasning Nusawardani, Lyric Bartholomay, and Russell A. Jurenka

PDF

Soybean aphid efficacy screening program, 2013, Erin W. Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand

PDF

Effects of Entomopathogens on Mortality of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize, Amanda Hoffmann, B. Wade French, Stefan T. Jaronski, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

One Gene Versus Two: A Regional Study on the Efficacy of Single Gene Versus Pyramided Resistance for Soybean Aphid Management, Michael T. McCarville, Matthew E. O'Neal, Bruce Potter, Kelley J. Tilmon, Eileen M. Cullen, B. P. McCornack, John F. Tooker, and A. Prischmann-Voldseth

PDF

Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground, Michael T. McCarville, David H. Soh, Gregory L. Tylka, and Matthew E. O'Neal

PDF

Conclusive Evidence of Replication of a Plant Virus in Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, and Amy L. Toth

Link

Effect of Maize Lines on Larval Fitness Costs of Cry1F Resistance in the European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, Blair D. Siegfried, Richard L. Hellmich, Craig A. Abel, Brad S. Coates, Terence Spencer, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Effect of Maize Lines on Larval Fitness Costs of Cry1F Resistance in the European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, Blair D. Siegfried, Richard L. Hellmich, Craig A. Abel, Brad S. Coates, Terrance A. Spencer, and Aaron J. Gassmann

PDF

Increased area of a highly suitable host crop increases herbivore pressure in intensified agricultural landscapes, Tatyana A. Rand, Debra K. Waters, Sue L. Blodgett, Janet J. Knodel, and Marion O. Harris

PDF

On-Plant Selection and Genetic Analysis of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Behavioral Traits: Plant Abandonment Versus Plant Establishment, Michael A. Rausch, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Aaron J. Gassmann, and Richard L. Hellmich