Journal or Book Title
Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms
Possible consequences from the widespread planting of Bt crops have been reconsidered in light of laboratory studies showing that both non-target herbivores and beneficial insects may be adversely affected without feeding directly on Bt crops (Hilbeck et al. 1998, Losey et al. 1999, Jesse and Obrycki 2000, Dutton et al. 2002, Ponsard et al. 2002).Though not proving any harm to the environment, these laboratory studies suggest assessing the unintended effects of Bt crops is more complex than anticipated. However, because Bt crops are not grown in controlled environments, field trials will likely continue to be the final standard by which their benefits and risks are assessed.
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Prasifka, Jarrad R. and Hellmich, Richard L., "Developing guidelines for monitoring non-target effects of Bt crops" (2004). Entomology Publications. 283.