Journal or Book Title
Biology and Fertility of Soils
Pesticide contamination of soil and groundwater at agricultural chemical distribution sites is a widespread problem in the USA. Alternatives to land-farming or solid waste disposal include biostimulation and phytoremediation. This research investigated the ability of compost, corn stalks, corn fermentation byproduct, peat, manure, and sawdust at rates of 0.5% and 5% (w/w) to stimulate biodegradation of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methyethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide], and trifluralin [2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine] added as a mixture to soil. Initial concentrations were 175±42 mg atrazine kg–1 soil, 182±25 mg metolachlor kg–1 soil, and 165±23 mg trifluralin kg–1soil. After amendment addition, 30% of the atrazine, 33% of the metolachlor, and 44% of the trifluralin was degraded over 245 days, which included 63 days' aging prior to amendment additions. Atrazine degradation was enhanced by 0.5% manure, 5% peat, and 5% cornstalk amendments compared to nonamended soils. Metolachlor degradation was enhanced by all amendments at the 5% level, except for compost and peat. Amendments had no effect on trifluralin degradation. The 5% addition of compost, manure, and cornstalks resulted in significant increases in bacterial populations and dehydrogenase activity. A second experiment compared the persistence of atrazine, metolachlor, and trifluralin applied in a mixture to their persistence in soil individually. A combined average of 123 mg atrazine kg–1 remained in soil treated with the three-herbicide mixture compared to 31 mg atrazine kg–1 remaining in soil treated with atrazine only. Atrazine mineralization and atrazine-degrading microorganisms were suppressed by high concentrations of metolachlor, but not by trifluralin.
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Moorman, Thomas B.; Cowan, Jennifer K.; Arthur, Ellen L.; and Coats, Joel R., "Organic Amendments to Enhance Herbicide Biodegradation in Contaminated Soils" (2001). Entomology Publications. 329.