Journal or Book Title
Journal of Economic Entomology
Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes ( Rag ). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides. However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e ., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100% susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects on yield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes.
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Varenhorst, A. J. and O'Neal, M. E., "The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control" (2016). Entomology Publications. 459.