Journal or Book Title
The Natural History of Madagascar
Net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae) are a small group of highly specialized aquatic flies. The immature stages are remarkable in their adaptations to and intimate association with torrential streams. Structural adaptations of larvae include six ventral suctorial disks, which function as hydraulic suckers and allow for secure attachment to current-exposed substrata. Other unusual features include a fused head, thorax, and first abdominal segment ( =·cephalothorax or cephalic division), which keeps the anterior larval body compact and close to the boundary layer while the larva is feeding. Pupae also are well adapted to torrential streams, being dorsoventrally compressed, streamlined, and attached immovably to rocks by three to four pairs of ventrolateral adhesive disks. Adult blepharicerids are slender bodied and long legged and show a diversity of habits. Despite their unique appearance, wide distribution, and trophic significance, data about net-winged midges remain scattered and incomplete (e.g., Courtney 2000a,b).
University of Chicago Press
Courtney, Gregory W., "Blephariceridae, Net-Winged Midges" (2003). Entomology Publications. 570.