Campus Units

Entomology

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date

2015

Journal or Book Title

Freshwater Life: A field guide to the plants and animals of southern Africa

First Page

210

Last Page

227

Abstract

Diptera, the true flies, are among the most diverse and ecologically important insects. Adults are easily recognised by their single pair of wings (the forewings) and club-shaped halteres (derived from the hindwings). Two major subgroups occur: the lower Diptera and the more robust higher Diptera. The lower Diptera (below), traditionally treated as the suborder Nematocera, form an assemblage of primitive groups of generally delicate (‘mosquito-like’) flies with multisegmented, often long, adult antennae. Larval lower Diptera have a complete head capsule and horizontally working mandibles. Higher Diptera, suborder Brachycera (meaning ‘short-horned’) (p.220), are generally more robust flies with relatively short antennae, and their larvae have reduced head capsules and mouthparts that usually work vertically (like a snake’s fangs), rather than horizontally. All measurements given are body lengths.

Comments

This chapter is published as Marshall, S.A. & G.W. Courtney. 2015. Flies – Order Diptera. pp. 210-227 in C. Griffiths, J. Day & M. Picker (editors). Freshwater Life: A field guide to the plants and animals of southern Africa. Penguin Random House / Struik (Field Guide Series), Cape Town, South Africa. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

The Authors and Penguin Random House South Africa

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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