Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology

First Advisor

Donald C. Beitz


The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine contents in longissimus muscle of Angus cattle and their correlations with carcass and palatability traits. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from 2,342 Angus cattle fed in Iowa (n=1,114), Texas (n=455), Colorado (n=391), and California (n=382). Creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine were extracted from beef and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of these compounds then were correlated with carcass and palatability traits including hot carcass weight (HCW), kidney pelvic heart fat percentage (KPH), ribeye area, fat thickness, marbling score, calculated yield grade, sensory panel scores, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Statistical analysis showed that the gender of cattle significantly (P < 0.05) affected the concentrations of creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine. Bulls contained greater creatine content than did steers (P < 0.05) but produced lower amount of carnosine than did heifers (P < 0.05). Significant variation from feeding location was also observed. The correlations with carcass quality and sensory scores were significant but weak, which suggested that beef quality, especially tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, would not be strongly affected by selecting for higher creatine and carnosine contents.


Copyright Owner

Qi Liu



Date Available


File Format


File Size

67 pages