Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Katherine T. Thomas

Second Advisor

Richard Engelhorn


Twenty-seven novice football coaches 18-30 years in age were recruited to participate in this study. The study consisted of three parts: the pre-test, intervention, and post-test. A knowledge score, football experience, and XBOX 360 experience were all obtained at baseline (pre-test). Knowledge was then tested again at post-test to track changes over the intervention. An intervention consisting of six practice sessions took place over a 3-week period between the pre- and post-testing sessions. Each practice session consisted of a video game simulation of a football game and a football scenario response selection session where accuracy of decisions, speed of decisions, total yards, level of game-play, and win/loss ratio were recorded. These variables helped track changes from pre- to post-intervention. All participants finished the study in its entirety.

A dependent t-test showed that knowledge increased significantly from pre- to post-test [t (26) = -4.997, p = 0.0001]. The improvements were moderate with an effect size of 0.57. A group comparison (high knowledge and low knowledge) based on post knowledge test scores produced significant within subject effects for speed of decisions, total yards and level of video game play, but yielded no within subject interactions or between subject (knowledge group) effects at a significant level. A second group comparison (low, moderate, and high experience) based on football experience level produced three significant time main effects for knowledge, speed, and total yards along with one interaction for accuracy. No between subject effects were significant, with accuracy being the only variable approaching significance. The results show video games to be an effective method to increase sport knowledge.


Copyright Owner

Mark Allan Sanger



Date Available


File Format


File Size

102 pages

Included in

Kinesiology Commons