Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Animal Science

First Advisor

Joseph C. Cordray


With the increased growth in natural and organic processed meats, suppliers have begun to offer “ clean label ” solutions to improve the safety of minimally processed foods. This study investigated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured, no – nitrate – or– nitrite– added Emulsified Frankfurter Style Cooked Sausages (EFSC) with or without natural or “ clean label ” antimicrobials, over a 120 d sampling period. Additional quality attributes including residual nitrate, residual nitrite, TBARS analysis and color were also analyzed. No – nitrate – or – nitrite– added treatments with no anti – listerial control measures exhibited a decreased lag time and shorter generation time for initiation of growth, resulting in a greater population of L. monocytogenes when compared to the sodium nitrite, sodium lactate/diacetate controls or alternatively cured products with natural or “ clean label ” antimicrobials. Curing systems which utilize a natural nitrate source and nitrate reducing starter culture were negatively impacted by the addition of these antimicrobials. Significantly higher levels (P<0.05) of residual nitrate and lower levels (P<0.05) of residual nitrite were found in treatments which contained natural and “ clean label ” antimicrobials. Results indicate that natural and “ clean label ” antimicrobials may serve as an effective intervention strategy for L. monocytogenes in the production of uncured, no – nitrate – or – nitrite – added (natural or organic) ready – to – eat (RTE) meat products, but may have negative impacts on the generation of nitrite for curing reactions and other quality attributes.


Copyright Owner

Kohl Danielle Schrader



Date Available


File Format


File Size

188 pages