Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management

First Advisor

Cheryl Hausafus

Second Advisor

Linda Peterat


This quasi-experimental study investigated whether the knowledge of the Enneagram system affects unconditional self-acceptance and psychological well-being of university students who have been attending university for at least a year. It also measured the correlation between the total scores on the psychological well-being instrument and unconditional self-acceptance questionnaire. A two-group design was employed, wherein a control and an experimental group completed a pre- and two post-tests on psychological well-being and unconditional self-acceptance. The randomly selected experimental group received three weekly educational sessions on the Enneagram system.

Results show that the knowledge of the Enneagram personality system does not have a significant effect on psychological well-being. Due to a small sample size and violation of the assumptions required to conduct an ANCOVA it was not possible to determine if the knowledge of the Enneagram affects unconditional self-acceptance. Findings indicate also a low to moderate positive correlation between the Unconditional self-acceptance questionnaire Chamberlain and Haaga (2001a) and Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale (1989).

Recommendations include using a larger sample, changing the number of educational sessions or their format, and using an additional test to measure irrational thoughts. Therefore, in a future study it may be favorable that the intervention be an integral part of a family and consumer sciences university course. Finally, despite the results of this study there are some indicators that suggest the Enneagram system be taught in schools and university to help prepare students to be more conscious of how marketing agencies may manipulate such knowledge to their advantage.


Copyright Owner

Jeanne Godin



Date Available


File Format


File Size

99 pages