Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Marcia H. Rosenbusch


In this research study, the attitudes of English- and Spanish-speaking students from three Midwest states in the U.S., who were enrolled in second, and world language education programs in the early grades of elementary school (K-2) were evaluated and compared with the attitudes of students at the same grade levels enrolled in English-only programs in which no world languages were taught. One of the groups of young students was participating in a Spanish two-way immersion program and their attitudes were compared with the attitudes of students from the same school district in a similar comparative school with an English-only program. The other group of students was participating in a Chinese world language program. Their attitudes were compared with students at the same grade levels (K-2) in similar schools within the same school districts. In these comparative schools, however, there were no world language programs.

In general, students enrolled in Spanish two-way immersion programs or in the Chinese world language program demonstrate more positive attitudes toward languages than students enrolled in English-only programs.

Copyright Owner

Claudia Navarro-villarroel



Date Available


File Format


File Size

165 pages