Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Food Science and Human Nutrition

First Advisor

D. Lee Alekel


Background and Aims: Prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals are at an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The role of hypertension in endothelial dysfunction and increased cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression may lead to atherosclerotic progression. Soy protein and isoflavones have been shown to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of daily cow's milk compared with soy beverage prepared from whole soy bean (WSB) or soy protein isolate (SPI) on soluble cell adhesion molecules.

Methods: We enrolled healthy prehypertensive/Stage 1 hypertensive men (n=60, aged 18 - 63 yr) and premenopausal women (n=8, aged 20 - 48 yr) and randomized them to one of three beverage groups for 8 weeks of treatment: cow's milk (600 mL/d), soy beverage (840 mL/d) prepared from SPI (30.1 mg total isoflavones/d [aglycone form]) or prepared from WSB (91.4 mg total isoflavones/d [aglycone form]). We measured soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) at baseline and week 8.

Results: Treatment did not alter soluble CAM concentrations. Time had an effect on VCAM-1 (-9%, P = 0.01) and E-selectin (+4%, P = 0.01) but not ICAM-1 (+5%, P=0.86). Gender also had a significant effect on ICAM-1 (P=0.0037), whereas gender did not reach significance for E-selectin (P=0.067) or VCAM-1 (P=0.16). Men had higher circulating concentrations of ICAM-1 and E-selectin, respectively, at both baseline (P = 0.0071, P = 0.049) and week 8 (P = 0.0054, P = 0.038) than women. ICAM concentrations were not significantly different between prehypertensive and hypertensive participants.

Conclusion: Prehypertensive/Stage I hypertensive individuals who consumed either cow's milk or soy beverages (prepared from WSB or SPI) for 8 weeks daily did not show any change in soluble CAM concentrations. Consequently, we cannot suggest that daily intake of either cow's milk or soy protein beverages improves circulating CAM concentrations and hence risk of atherosclerotic CVD in these individuals.


Copyright Owner

Michelle Elise Dettmer



Date Available


File Format


File Size

76 pages

Included in

Nutrition Commons