Degree Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2012

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Chemistry

First Advisor

Brian G. Trewyn

Second Advisor

Aaron D. Sadow

Abstract

This dissertation presents research on the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials and their applications on the fields of drug delivery system and heterogeneous catalysis.

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) featuring several particular physicochemical properties are of great interest in material science and applied chemistry. With high biocompatibility and large pore size, MSNs have been regarded as a highly promising platform for intracellular controlled release of drugs and biomolecules. On the other hand, the robust silica framework and easy surface functionalization make MSNs decent solid supports for various types of heterogeneous catalysis.

A newly developed surfactant-assistant drug delivery system is investigated. A series of biocompatible phosphate monoester surfactant (PMES) containing PMES-MSN were synthesized and well characterized. The formation mechanism of these special radially- aligned mesostructure was systematic studied by TEM technique and carbon nanocasting. We found that the particle size and shape as well as the structural integrity can be tuned by the ratio of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and PMES. For biological application, the controlled release of the hydrophobic drug, resveratrol, was tested both in solution and in vitro. It showed that the surfactant-containing PMES-MSNs has a loading capacity around 4 times higher than its surfactant-free counterpart. In addition, a sustained release pattern was observed in the PMES-MSNs release system, indicating the feature of surfactant-assistance. The in vitro study in HeLa cells demonstrated that PMES-MSNs can be efficiently endocytosed. We also observed an endosomal escape of PMES-MSNs within the HeLa cells probably due to proton sponge effect and the assistance of PMES.

A series of bifunctionalized MSN catalysts with diarylammonium triflate groups (DAT) as active acid sites and pentafluorophenyl groups (PFP) as secondary functional groups for the catalysis of esterification were synthesized and well characterized. We found that the higher PFP to DAT ratio the higher the reactivity. This phenomenon is resulting from the extreme hydrophobicity of PFP groups which help expel the sole byproduct "water" out of the mesopores, pushing the equilibrium reaction to the product end. It has also shown that our DAT/PFP-MSN catalysts can be recycled at least five times with identical yields.

A sequential impregnation method was developed to synthesize supported bimetallic Pd-Au@MSN catalysts with homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles. The tandem catalysis of aerobic oxidative esterification of primary alcohols was applied to examine the catalytic performance of these bimetallic Pd-Au@MSN catalysts. A synergistic effect was observed in the case of bimetallic catalyst system, in which the reactivity and selectivity are much higher than its counter monometallic catalysts. Catalysts recyclability and reasons for their deactivation were also studied and discussed in Chapter 4.

Comments

This dissertation presents research on the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials and their applications on the fields of drug delivery system and heterogeneous catalysis.

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) featuring several particular physicochemical properties are of great interest in material science and applied chemistry. With high biocompatibility and large pore size, MSNs have been regarded as a highly promising platform for intracellular controlled release of drugs and biomolecules. On the other hand, the robust silica framework and easy surface functionalization make MSNs decent solid supports for various types of heterogeneous catalysis.

A newly developed surfactant-assistant drug delivery system is investigated. A series of biocompatible phosphate monoester surfactant (PMES) containing PMES-MSN were synthesized and well characterized. The formation mechanism of these special radially- aligned mesostructure was systematic studied by TEM technique and carbon nanocasting. We found that the particle size and shape as well as the structural integrity can be tuned by the ratio of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and PMES. For biological application, the controlled release of the hydrophobic drug, resveratrol, was tested both in solution and in vitro. It showed that the surfactant-containing PMES-MSNs has a loading capacity around 4 times higher than its surfactant-free counterpart. In addition, a sustained release pattern was observed in the PMES-MSNs release system, indicating the feature of surfactant-assistance. The in vitro study in HeLa cells demonstrated that PMES-MSNs can be efficiently endocytosed. We also observed an endosomal escape of PMES-MSNs within the HeLa cells probably due to proton sponge effect and the assistance of PMES.

A series of bifunctionalized MSN catalysts with diarylammonium triflate groups (DAT) as active acid sites and pentafluorophenyl groups (PFP) as secondary functional groups for the catalysis of esterification were synthesized and well characterized. We found that the higher PFP to DAT ratio the higher the reactivity. This phenomenon is resulting from the extreme hydrophobicity of PFP groups which help expel the sole byproduct "water" out of the mesopores, pushing the equilibrium reaction to the product end. It has also shown that our DAT/PFP-MSN catalysts can be recycled at least five times with identical yields.

A sequential impregnation method was developed to synthesize supported bimetallic Pd-Au@MSN catalysts with homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles. The tandem catalysis of aerobic oxidative esterification of primary alcohols was applied to examine the catalytic performance of these bimetallic Pd-Au@MSN catalysts. A synergistic effect was observed in the case of bimetallic catalyst system, in which the reactivity and selectivity are much higher than its counter monometallic catalysts. Catalysts recyclability and reasons for their deactivation were also studied and discussed in Chapter 4.

Copyright Owner

Chih-Hsiang Tsai

Language

en

Date Available

October 24, 2012

File Format

application/pdf

File Size

170 pages

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