Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Scott McLeod

Second Advisor

Joanne Marshall


Background: The state of Iowa has seen a drastic increase in the number of schools that provide one laptop for each student. These 1:1 schools have invested large amounts of time and money into becoming a 1:1 school. The current research on 1:1 schools is sparse, and policy makers are actively trying to evaluate those programs.

Purpose: To assess the effects of 1:1 laptop programs across the state of Iowa on time students use technology, integration of technology, and teacher competency with technology.

Setting: There were 110 public high schools across the state of Iowa that were included in this study, and 37 of those were 1:1 schools.

Subjects: Data were collected for both the school and teachers. A total of 922 teachers at 110 schools filled out the survey completely and were included in the study.

Research Design: Schools were initially identified for the study using propensity score matching. A propensity score was generated for each school, and treatment and control schools were matched based on their propensity score. Once schools had been identified multi-level models were created for the three separate dependent variables of interest in this study.

Data Collection and Analysis: Data on schools were collected from the Iowa Department of Education and the Common Core of Data. Teacher level data were collected using a survey that was based off of a survey created by Hutchison and Reinking (2011). Each of the three research questions in the study was analyzed with four separate multi-level models.

Findings: Significant differences were identified between 1:1 educators and their non-1:1 peers. Teachers in 1:1 schools reported that their students used technology more frequently, and 1:1 educators also reported higher integration scores. The remaining finding indicated that 1:1 educators reported that they had higher competency levels with technology than other educators.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a 1:1 program is one way for schools to increase students' access and exposure to technology. It also indicates that 1:1 schools appear to develop their teachers' skill set with technology better than other schools.


Copyright Owner

Nicholas John Sauers



Date Available


File Format


File Size

171 pages