Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Nathaniel G. Wade


Over the past three decades research on addressing religious and spiritual issues in individual counseling has blossomed, but group counseling has been virtually ignored. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the beliefs and preferences of group counseling clients and therapists regarding the discussion of religious and spiritual concerns, and the appropriateness of religious and spiritual interventions. Participants were 164 clients and 54 therapists participating in counseling groups at nine university counseling centers nationwide. The majority of clients and therapists indicated that religious concerns are an appropriate topic for group counseling, and the majority of clients reported a preference to discuss religious or spiritual concerns. Both clients and therapists rated spiritual interventions as more appropriate, overall, than religious interventions. However, most clients and therapists rated exploration of both religious and spiritual struggles as an appropriate intervention. Regression models predicting client preferences to discuss religious and spiritual issues identified religious commitment and religious struggle as significant predictors. Finally, implications for practice, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

Copyright Owner

Brian Christopher Post



File Format


File Size

225 pages