Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Natural Resource Ecology and Management


Sustainable Agriculture

First Advisor

Rebecca A. Christoffel


It is increasingly necessary for state agencies to incorporate the opinions of their constituents in wildlife management decision-making. Shifting demographics of Iowa's human population necessitate gathering information on stakeholders' beliefs and values toward wildlife. This project was implemented to establish baseline information regarding the distribution of WVOs held by Iowa's citizenry, identify areas of dissonance between the public and agency staff, and elucidate issues of state agency credibility. The goal is to provide information that will be helpful in implementation and operationalization of the Iowa Wildlife Action Plan (IWAP). The public was surveyed through a statewide self-administered mail questionnaire (n = 5,400) and an online questionnaire was used to solicit responses from employees of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources' Conservation and Recreation Division (n = 611). We classified individuals into one of four wildlife value orientations (WVOs) based on their beliefs and attitudes towards wildlife: Utilitarian, Mutualistic, Pluralistic, and Distanced. We found significant differences between state agency staff and the public in the distribution of WVOs and we demonstrated that the public believes the IDNR to be more credible than was predicted by the IDNR employees. We demonstrated the utility of the gathered information by applying our knowledge of the public's WVOs to understand preferred responses to possible conflicts associated with the presence of a potentially recolonizing large predator in Iowa, supporting our assertion that understanding how citizens think of and value wildlife can help state agencies make better informed decisions as to preferred and acceptable management of wildlife.


Copyright Owner

Andrew L. Stephenson



File Format


File Size

125 pages