Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering


Civil Engineering (Environmental Engineering)

First Advisor

Chris Rehmann


A series of laboratory experiments was run with a variety of stable temperature profiles, unstable salinity profiles, and stable density profiles. The fluid was periodically stirred at set turbulence intensities and profiled after each stirring period. Salt fingers and differential diffusion were both present during stable temperature and unstable salinity conditions with turbulence. When the density ratio Rρ was between 1 and approximately 3, salt finger fluxes were dominant and caused the salinity to mix faster than the temperature. When Rρ was greater than about 4, differential diffusion fluxes were dominant and caused temperature to mix faster than salinity. The differential diffusion and salt finger fluxes were also dependent on the turbulence intensity. Differential diffusion fluxes were stronger for large values of the turbulent Richardson number RiT than for small values of RiT. However, salt finger fluxes were stronger for small values of RiT than for large values of RiT. During periods of turbulence, the mixing efficiencies were generally highest in the regions that were most conducive to differential diffusion.

Copyright Owner

Ian Paul Willard



File Format


File Size

50 pages