Date of Award
Master of Science
Animal fat is an essential ingredient in processed meats as it provides unique organoleptic properties which are characteristic of these products. That being said, further-processed meat products could become more beneficial to consumer health if highly-saturated animal fat is replaced with unsaturated vegetable oils. Oleogels, gels with oil as the liquid phase, have the potential to produce comminuted meat products similar in organoleptic properties to conventional products, but with an alternative set of health benefits as a result of increased unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the impact that rice bran wax/soybean oil oleogel as a pork fat replacement has on the shelf-life stability and organoleptic properties of frankfurters.
Five frankfurter treatments were produced using the following lipid replacements or strategies: 1) pork back fat (PF); 2) soybean oil (SBO); 3) oleogel made with soybean oil and 2.5% rice bran wax (2.5 RBW); 4) oleogel made with soybean oil and 10% rice bran wax (10 RBW); and 5) oleogel made with soybean oil and 2.5% rice bran wax added later in the chopping step of the frankfurter batter (RBW/LS). Replacing pork fat with oleogels did not influence emulsion stability or cook/chill yield of the frankfurters. Color analysis revealed PF to be significantly darker (P < 0.05) than SBO, 2.5 RBW, and 10 RBW, and significantly (P < 0.05) redder than all other treatments. Texture analysis revealed PF, 2.5 RBW, 10 RBW, and RBW/LS to be similar in firmness and springiness, but SBO was significantly (P < 0.05) different from PF in these attributes. Incisor texture probe revealed PF to require significantly (P < 0.05) less force to puncture than all other treatments. Additionally, sensory evaluation revealed that replacing pork fat did not influence cured frank aroma, but cured frank flavor was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in all treatments which replaced pork fat. Furthermore, lipid oxidation significantly (P < 0.05) differed between PF and 10 RBW, but not between any other treatments. Microstructure data revealed that PF and 10 RBW both had a greater proportion of fat globules larger than 100 μm2 when compared to all other treatments, possibly indicating the stronger oleogel was able to stay intact during frankfurter processing. In conclusion, oleogels produced with rice bran wax and soybean oil have potential to produce frankfurters with similar technological quality, texture characteristics, color values, lipid oxidation, and microstructure features as those made with pork fat.
Wolfer, Taylor, "Fats, oils, and oleogels: Their significance in and impacts on comminuted meat products" (2017). Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 15463.