Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Genetics, Development and Cell Biology


Bioinformatics and Computational Biology

First Advisor

Amy Vincent

Second Advisor

Drena Dobbs


Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analyzed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates. For each gene, sequences were aligned, the best-known maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred, and each virus was assigned a clade based upon its evolutionary history. A time-scaled Bayesian approach was implemented for the hemagglutinin (HA) gene to determine the patterns of genetic diversity over time. From these analyses, we observed an increase in genome diversity across all H1 lineages and clades, with the H1-γ and H1-δ1 genetic clades containing the greatest number of unique genome patterns. We documented 74 genome patterns from 2009 to 2016, of which 3 genome patterns were consistently detected at a significantly higher level than others across the entire time period. Eight genome patterns increased significantly while 5 genome patterns were shown to decline in detection over time. Viruses with genome patterns identified as persisting in the U.S. swine population may possess a greater capacity to infect and transmit in swine. This study highlights the emerging genetic diversity of U.S. swine IAV from 2009 to 2016 with implications for swine and public health and vaccine control efforts.


Copyright Owner

Shibo Gao



File Format


File Size

65 pages