Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Human Development and Family Studies


Human Development and Family Studies

First Advisor

Peter Martin


Although the researchers suggest that retirees’ physical health, finances, and social support are important resources for adjustment in retirement, little attention has been paid to their impacts on retirement adjustment in post-retirement. This study investigates the influence of initial status of and change in these resources on early retirement adjustment based on the resource-based dynamic model (Wang, Henkens, & van Solinge, 2011). Data of retirees from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed with latent growth curve models and a cross-lagged model. Retirement adjustment was measured by depressive symptoms and a question asking about retirement satisfaction. The effects of retirees’ personality traits, marital status, and job satisfaction while employed were included to account for retirees’ individual differences in each resource. Retirees with better physical health, more financial resources, and higher levels of social support from their spouse reported fewer depressive symptoms and higher levels of retirement satisfaction. Changes in resources also predicted changes in post-retirement adjustment. Conscientiousness, extraversion, being married, and higher satisfaction with job while employed were related to better adjustment, whereas openness, agreeableness, and neuroticism predicted worse adjustment. Personality traits and job satisfaction were associated differently with social support according to who provided the support. The findings that retirees’ resources change after retirement and influence retirement adjustment show the importance of maintaining these resources after retirement.


Copyright Owner

Kyuho Lee



File Format


File Size

149 pages