Degree Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2017

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Mathematics

Major

Mathematics

First Advisor

Jonathan D. Smith

Abstract

This work consists of three parts. The discussion begins with \emph{linear quasigroups}. For a unital ring $S$, an $S$-linear quasigroup is a unital $S$-module, with automorphisms $\rho$ and $\lambda$ giving a (nonassociative) multiplication $x\cdot y=x^\rho+y^\lambda$. If $S$ is the field of complex numbers, then ordinary characters provide a complete linear isomorphism invariant for finite-dimensional $S$-linear quasigroups. Over other rings, it is an open problem to determine tractably computable isomorphism invariants. The paper investigates this isomorphism problem for $\mathbb{Z}$-linear quasigroups. We consider the extent to which ordinary characters classify $\mathbb{Z}$-linear quasigroups and their representations of the free group on two generators. We exhibit non-isomorphic $\mathbb{Z}$-linear quasigroups with the same ordinary character. For a subclass of $\mathbb{Z}$-linear quasigroups, equivalences of the corresponding ordinary representations are realized by permutational intertwinings. This leads to a new equivalence relation on $\mathbb{Z}$-linear quasigroups, namely permutational similarity. Like the earlier concept of central isotopy, permutational similarity is intermediate between isomorphism and isotopy. The story progresses with a representation of the free quasigroup on a single generator. This provides the motivation behind the study of \emph{peri-Catalan numbers}. While Catalan numbers index the number of length $n$ magma words in a single generator, peri-Catalan numbers index the number of length $n$ reduced form quasigroup words in a single generator. We derive a recursive formula for the $n$-th peri-Catalan number. This is a new sequence in that it is not on the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31274/etd-180810-5929

Copyright Owner

Stefanie Grace Wang

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

File Size

77 pages

Included in

Mathematics Commons

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