Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management


Hospitality Management

First Advisor

Eric A. Brown


Performance appraisals are prevalent in all credible hospitality organizations today (Capelli, 2016). After an extensive review of the literature, it is apparent that there is a considerable disconnect between the execution of the performance appraisal and the outcomes that a practitioner would expect. With the use of the implicit person theory (IPT) and the five-factor model (FFM), this study pursued a view of how the personality disposition of a manager may affect how a performance appraisal is perceived by subordinates suggesting that innately some managers are better suited to conduct performance appraisals. The aim of this research was to assess the relationship between the employee’s perceived fairness and effectiveness of a recently conducted performance appraisal and a manager’s IPT disposition and FFM personality attributes.

Paired data were collected using four established instruments; two for the predictor variables and two for the dependent variables. IPT Disposition Survey (Dweck, 1999) and FFM Survey (Shafer, 1999) were used to collect predictor variable data. Justice Measures Survey (Colquit, 2001) and Effective Performance Evaluation Survey (Longenecker, Liverpool & Wilson, 1988) were used to collect dependent variable data. Additionally, demographic and descriptive data were obtained. A response rate of 77% (N=90) was received after hand-delivered survey packets were distributed to the manager and the employee samples. The participants were from 20 different hospitality organizations located in the northeast region of the United States; the sample was derived from hotels (7), restaurants (8) and private clubs (5).

Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s Coefficient correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and regression analyses to test 15 hypothesis and to answer five research questions. Statistical significance was found between IPT incrementalism and perceived fairness [r (90) = .400, p<.000]. Regression analysis revealed IPT incrementalism was statistically significant in predicting perceived fairness (F (1, 89) = 16.722, p <.000]. Statistical significance was also present between IPT incrementalism and perceived effectiveness [r (90) = .435, p <.000]. Regression analysis revealed IPT incrementalism was statistically significant in predicting perceived fairness [F (1, 89) = 20.501, p<.000]. Among the manager sample, statistical significance was found in agreeableness of FFM related to effectiveness [F (1, 89) = 4.508, p = .037]. Lastly, sex and age were examined for differences in means. Among the employee sample, a t – Test for equality of means revealed a statistically significant difference in means between sex and fairness [t (88) = -1.99, p = .049]. Practical and research implications are discussed; recommendations for further research and limitations regarding this present research are included.

Keywords: performance evaluation, manager personality, employee perceptions, fairness, effectiveness


Copyright Owner

James M. Storey



File Format


File Size

236 pages