Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts





First Advisor

Susan Yager


The medieval outlaw appears in historical, religious, and legal texts of late Medieval England and is imagined in fiction as well, specifically in the romance narratives of Geoffrey Chaucer and Thomas Malory. Outlawry was a legal state that could be imposed. Both Chaucer and Malory, especially the latter, found themselves outside the law at different points of their lives, an item to consider when examining the authors’ representation of knights acting outside the chivalric code. Both authors populate their romances with outlawry, illustrating the ethical, legal, and social assumptions of their own times. In Chaucer and Malory, knights can sometimes be outlaws, and when they are, they are often portrayed as running amok or going mad, leading them to a quest or to an act that must be completed before they can be reintroduced into society. Early critics Maurice Keen and Eric Hobsbawm narrowly defined what they saw as outlawry in medieval literature, but the more recent work of Timothy S. Jones renews the possibility of better examining outlawry’s intersection with medieval romance.

Outlawry has traditionally been associated with the narratives of Robin Hood, who is traditionally depicted as an outlaw wearing green who robbed the rich and gave to the poor. Yet broadening the definitions of what constitutes an outlaw narrative can lead to fresh readings of Chaucer’s and Malory’s work. To be outlawed, in medieval fiction, carries with it an additional displacement of a character’s human connection to others. In this project, I examine fictional knights tarrying in outlawed space while grounding my argument in historical narratives. In doing so, I illuminate how outlawry intersects with medieval romance, unveiling chivalry’s ideological blemishes.

Copyright Owner

Carolyn Sue Gonzalez



File Format


File Size

60 pages