Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy





First Advisor

Denise A. Schmidt-Crawford


This dissertation investigated the impact of prior knowledge, course design, and technology preparation on pre-service teachers' development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in a teacher education program at a large Midwestern land-grant university over a span of nine academic years (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). In this study, 1,246 pre-service teachers participated by responding to both pre- and post-TPACK surveys. A series of statistical analyses were used to analyze the quantitative data collected from these pre- and post-surveys. First, descriptive analyses and a two-step cluster analysis were used to group pre-service teachers into different clusters based on their pre-TPACK scores (low and high). A two-group model was found to be the best fit, and thus, pre-service teachers were grouped into these two clusters. Cluster 1 pre-service teachers reported lower pre-TPACK scores compared to cluster 2 pre-service teachers. Paired-sample t-tests were run to examine whether there were differences in the post-TPACK and TPACK-development scores. The results revealed that cluster 2 pre-service teachers reported higher post-TPACK scores, while cluster 1 pre-service teachers had higher TPACK-development scores. Second, two-way MANOVA tests were used to investigate the impact of prior knowledge, course design, and technology preparation on pre-service teachers' post-TPACK and TPACK-development scores. All three variables were found to be statistically significant factors. In particular, a content-specific TPACK course design was more effective than the general course design. Cluster 2 pre-service teachers who reported higher pre-TPACK scores still had higher post-TPACK scores. Conceptual and practical implications are discussed. Future research directions are offered.

Copyright Owner

Yi Jin



File Format


File Size

197 pages

Available for download on Sunday, December 01, 2019