Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Chemical and Biological Engineering


Chemical Engineering

First Advisor

Matthew G. Panthani


This dissertation is a broad overview of research in the field of lead-free perovskite

inspired materials. While lead halide perovskites have promising properties, we sought to

investigate non-toxic alternatives – typically ones containing bismuth halides. We looked

into the flexibility of this element to be produced on different length scales, fabricating films

from bulk material, synthesizing nanocrystals, and growing crystals of 2D layered double

perovskites. We discovered that due to complexation with a solvent, bismuth iodide films can

be morphology controlled through use of solvent additives. During our synthesis of Cs3Bi2X9

nanocrystals, we found that BiX3 precursors possessed photoluminescence and that treatment

of these seeds was crucial to the end product of the reaction. We investigate layered double

perovskites containing bismuth and found that these materials have a structural transition and

a thermochromic behavior. Further, we determine that these double perovskites can be

processed into nanocrystals through sonication. Finally, we investigated the aforementioned

Bi seeds to determine methods of controlling the morphology and processability of the seeds,

finding that changing an alkylammonium ligand helps direct some amount of self-assembly.

We conclude that bismuth based materials have many interesting properties that encourage

future investigation into bismuth halides.

Copyright Owner

Rainie Dean Nelson



File Format


File Size

144 pages