Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine


Veterinary Preventive Medicine

First Advisor

Yuko Sato


The commercial poultry industry utilizes a diverse set of production birds and lacks venous blood gas and biochemistry reference intervals for specific commercial varieties (CVs) of laying hens of significance to commercial production. This master’s thesis aims to review the implementation of practical i-STAT®1 utilization in chickens, expand upon and provide reference intervals for some of the world’s most popular CVs of brown and tint egg laying hens (Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown and Hy-Line Sonia), and document notable findings therein. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the i-STAT®1 clinical technology utilized in subsequent chapters, a review of 13 blood gas and biochemistry parameters obtained from i-STAT®1 clinical technology. The 13 applicable parameters within the context of this study are pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pvCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure of oxygen (pvO2 mm Hg), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), saturation of oxygen on hemoglobin (sO2 %), glucose (Glu mg/dl), sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), total concentration of carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), hematocrit (Hct % Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), hemoglobin (Hb g/dl).

The portability of the i-STAT®1 is one of the key advantages in its successful implementation in the commercial poultry industry. The primary objective of Chapter 2 is to compare and validate the accuracy of the i-STAT®1 portable clinical analyzer and the VetScan VS2® benchtop clinical analyzer. Chapter 3, an already published work in the Journal of Poultry Science, includes work establishing blood gas and biochemistry reference intervals for the three colored egg laying commercial varieties in peak production, the Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown and Hy-Line Sonia. Chapter 3 of this thesis also illustrates the importance of such reference interval establishments for individual CVs by providing strong evidence of apparent differences between CVs. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the aforementioned chapters therein. Overall, results obtained from i-STAT®1 clinical analyzers should be very cautiously interpreted when compared against VetScan VS2® benchtop results, especially for the parameters iCa and K. In addition to effect of analyzation method, bird genetics (by CV) had a significant effect on blood gas and biochemistry values, with significantly different reference intervals reported for each of the CVs sampled. Practical application of the established reference intervals for the 3 CVs of colored egg laying hens may only be extended to birds 35-46 weeks of age of each respective variety. Future works with i-STAT®1 implementation with poultry can include correlation of blood gas and biochemistry data to production data, nutrition, clinical disease and genetic selection.

Copyright Owner

Zachary Charles Sauer



File Format


File Size

81 pages