Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Animal Science


Meat Science

First Advisor

Joseph G. Sebranek


The effects of processing method and added non-meat ingredients on the processing yield, batter stability, and texture profile of frankfurters were investigated. Five ingredient treatments (control, sodium alginate, iota carrageenan, transglutaminase, and pork collagen) of frankfurters were produced using three different processing methods (coarse grinding, chopping in a bowl chopper and passing through an emulsion mill). Emulsion stability (water separation, fat separation and total liquid separation) was measured on the resulting batter. Processing yield was measured after cooking and chilling the frankfurters. A texture profile analysis (TPA) of the finished frankfurters was also conducted with a focus on the TPA characteristics of hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness. Control treatments produced by different methods showed significantly (P < 0.05) different levels of processing yield with the emulsion mill producing the highest, followed by bowl chopper and then coarse grinding. Coarse ground treatments showed the most negative impact of processing method on processing yield and texture characteristics. The addition of transglutaminase showed a positive effect on TPA characteristics chewiness and cohesiveness, and did not affect processing yield. Consequently, a difference between frankfurters produced with different methods was observed, and a means to offset those differences through ingredient formulation was demonstrated.

Copyright Owner

Benjamin Lee Ruther



File Format


File Size

54 pages