Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical Engineering (Very Large Scale Integration)

First Advisor

Degang Chen


Bandgap references are widely used in analog and mixed-signal systems to provide temperature-independent voltage or current reference. In traditional bandgap structure, the base-emitter voltage VBE of a diode is used to generate a complementary to absolute temperature (CTAT) voltage, which reduces as temperature increases. The base-emitter voltage difference ∆VBE between two diodes with the same current but different emitter areas supplies a proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) voltage. With the proper adjustment of the coefficients of VBE and ∆VBE in a voltage summer, the temperature dependency of the summed voltage can be mostly canceled out and the output voltage can achieve a relative temperature-constant property. However, even though the linear terms of temperature-dependent components in PTAT and CTAT expressions can be canceled out, there are still some high order terms left, which still affect temperature dependency. For this reason, a first-order bandgap reference with only PTAT and CTAT linear term compensation cannot achieve a sufficiently low temperature coefficient (TC), normally ranging from 10ppm/°C to over 100ppm/°C. To achieve higher precision and lower TC, the high order terms also need to be considered and compensated by some techniques. This thesis study describes the development of a high order bandgap structure, including the initial thinking, design flow, equation derivation, circuit implementation, and simulation result.


Copyright Owner

Pangzhou Li



File Format


File Size

47 pages