Producing apples in the Midwest requires intensive, chemically based pest management systems to bring high-quality, fresh market apples to consumers. A combination of rising costs, pest resistance, and new legislation has caused existing systems of apple pest management to become ineffective or to fall out of favor with growers. Because of this, new methods of pest control were developed to combat the ever present problems in apple production. These new methods must meet a number of criteria: sufficient pest control must be achieved, the innovative tactics must be safer for applicators, the environment, and consumers, and must also be economically feasible or they are not likely to be adopted by growers.
Iowa State University
Gleason, Mark L. and Sisson, Adam, "Assessing New Methods of Integrated Pest Management for Apple Orchards in the Midwest" (2009). Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports. 491.