Campus Units

Food Science and Human Nutrition

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Achieving Sustainable Production of Milk



First Page


Last Page



Milk contains nine of the essential nutrients at good (at least 10% of the daily value) to excellent (at least 20% of the daily value) levels recommended for human nutrition, including protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, riboflavin, niacin and vitamins A, D and B 12. It is well established and accepted that dairy products contribute to bone and dental health (Black et al. 2002; Rockell et al. 2005; Gao et al. 2006; Huncharek et al. 2008; Moschonis et al. 2010; Davoodi et al. 2013). Additionally, dairy products also contribute to overall health and even have protective effects against coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer and other diseases (E lwood et al. 2005, 2007, 2008, 201 O; Kleim and Givens 2011; Davoodi et al. 2013). Thus, ensuring consumption of milk and dairy products is nutritionally relevant for a vibrant population. However, an abundant supply of milk matters little if poor quality prevents it from being consumed by those who need it. High-quality raw milk is essential, not only for the production of fluid milk but also for the production of all subsequent value-added dairy products made from milk. Because of high moisture (approximately 88% water) and nutrient composition (Table 1), milk is a highly perishable product. Although pasteurization ensures the safety of milk, the flavour quality of milk fresh from the cow cannot be improved. For instance, if milk is contaminated by microorganisms at any stage between cow and consumer, and those are allowed to proliferate (i.e., via temperature abuse), off-flavours can be produced that will persist (and sometimes become enhanced) with subsequent processing steps. Perhaps, the only exception includes the use of vacuum evaporation, which enables removal of absorbed volatile off-flavours (such as manure aroma) from milk.


This book chapter is published as Clark , S. 2016. Sensory evaluation of milk. Chapter 5 in: Achieving Sustainable Production of Milk Volume 1. Edited by N. van Belzen. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Ltd. Part 1 #5; 159-181. Posted with permission.

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Burleight Dodds Science Publishing



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