Campus Units

Food Science and Human Nutrition

Document Type


Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

American Journal of Enology and Viticulture




Wines produced from red interspecific hybrid grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) typically have lower tannin than wines produced from vinifera cultivars, which can be attributed to the lower concentration of tannins and higher concentration of tannin binding proteins of interspecific cultivars. Tannin in wines produced from hybrid cultivars could potentially be increased by blending hybrids with vinifera. We hypothesized that blending of grapes prior to fermentation (cofermentation) should result in final wine tannin concentrations lower than wine tannin concentrations predicted from the individual components due to protein-tannin binding, but that this effect should be absent from monovarietal wines blended post-fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, over a two-year study, a high tannin V. vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) was blended with an interspecific hybrid (Marquette) at different ratios either before (cofermentation) or after fermentation. The tannin and protein concentrations of the wines were measured by methyl cellulose precipitation assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Tannin and protein concentrations in blended wines were compared to values predicted from the linear combination of the two monovarietal wines. Co-fermented blends with a high proportion of Marquette had up to 25% lower tannin than predicted, but for most cofermentations and post-fermentation blends observed and predicted tannin concentrations did not differ. However, protein concentrations for many of the blends – especially from cofermentation - were lower than the predicted values, in some cases >50%. Loss of protein due to adsorption to tannin was well modeled by a Freundlich absorption isotherm.


This accepted article is published as Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert, Non-Linear Behavior of Protein and Tannin in Wine Produced by Cofermentation of an Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis spp.) and Vinifera Cultivar Am J Enol Vitic. September 2019, 19032; DOI: 10.5344/ajev.2019.19032. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

American Society for Enology and Viticulture



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Published Version