Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Agronomy, Aerospace Engineering, Ames Laboratory
Journal or Book Title
Journal of Climate
Annual variation of midlatitude precipitation and its maintenance through divergent water vapor flux were explored by the use of hydrological variables from three reanalyses [(NCEP–NCAR, ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA), and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1)] and two global precipitation datasets [Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)]. Two annual variation patterns of midlatitude precipitation were identified:
Tropical–midlatitude precipitation contrast: Midlatitude precipitation along storm tracks over the oceans attains its maximum in winter and its minimum in summer opposite to that over the tropical continents.
Land–ocean precipitation contrast: The annual precipitation variation between the oceans and the continent masses exhibits a pronounced seesaw.
The annual variation of precipitation along storm tracks of both hemispheres follows that of the convergence of transient water vapor flux. On the other hand, the land–ocean precipitation contrast in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes is primarily maintained by the annual seesaw between the divergence of stationary water vapor flux over the western oceans and the convergence of this water vapor flux over the eastern oceans during winter. The pattern is reversed during the summer. This divergence–convergence exchange of stationary water vapor flux is coupled with the annual evolution of upper-level ridges over continents and troughs over the oceans.
Copyright 2004 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act September 2010 Page 2 or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by P.L. 94-553) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. All AMS journals and monograph publications are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (http://www.copyright.com). Questions about permission to use materials for which AMS holds the copyright can also be directed to the AMS Permissions Officer at firstname.lastname@example.org. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement, available on the AMS website (http://www.ametsoc.org/CopyrightInformation).
American Meteorological Society
Chen, Tsing-Chang; Huang, Wan-Ru; and Takle, Eugene S., "Annual Variation of Midlatitude Precipitation" (2004). Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications. 171.