Journal or Book Title
Civilizations of the Supernatural. Edited by Fabrizio Conti
Doubt, disbelief, and skepticism have become important topics in the study of medieval Europe. Following a seminal article by the historian Susan Reynolds, medievalists from many disciplines have examined a range of tendencies often grouped together under the unlovely but encompassing term “unbelief.”2 They are engaged in an important project. In the overall historiography of Europe and the West, skeptical inquiry founded on the rejection of any kind of unquestioning belief has long stood as a hallmark of modernity, set against an enduring stereotype of the Middle Ages as credulous, superstitious, and altogether irrational.3
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Bailey, Michael D., "Magic and Disbelief in Carolingian Lyon" (2020). History Publications. 119.