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2016
Wednesday, April 27th
12:00 AM

A Comparison of Design Thinking in Architecture and Industrial Design

Karen Selof, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

The purpose of this study is to compare methods of design thinking in architecture and industrial design. Documenting and analyzing the methods and work processes of these two disciplines may help lead to improved understanding and collaboration between them. Through a survey of well-regarded written works in architecture and industrial design, many similarities and differences have been found and linked together to generate a common “map” of design thinking for both disciplines. Both disciplines’ design thinking processes are non-linear and often require revisiting a problem or a solution multiples times. They also tend to narrow big problems into smaller more defined problems. The main difference between the disciplines is in the final product that is produced. Architecture and industrial design solve different types of problems and therefore their end solutions are different; architects must come up with a final artifact that can not be changed once it is produced, whereas industrial designers can continue to refine and improve their artifacts even after an initial solution is found.

A Computational Study of Confinement Effects in Block Copolymers

Jonathan Green, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

We use high performance computing and self consistent field theory to investigate the morphology of multi-block polymers under different geometric confinement. Understanding the morphology adopted by polymers allows the design of tailored structures for industrial applications including organic electronics, micro-catalysis, lithography, and other cases where mesoscale control of the structure is critical. The finite element framework used in this study allows the treatment of arbitrarily shaped 2D and 3D structures. A required input to the framework are carefully designed meshes. Matlab is used to generate meshes from arbitrary two dimensional images and the Gmsh mesh generator is used for three dimensional structures. Morphology simulations using these meshes are performed on the Stampede supercomputer and the resultant structures are characterized. Unlike previous studies, this work focuses on the structures developed by polymers under geometric confinement. This is critical for applications utilizing mesos...

CINV Survey

Lauren Hackbarth, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side effect of chemotherapeutic treatment experienced by dogs that can lower quality of life and functionality. These symptoms are likewise found in people receiving chemotherapy; however, human oncology has well-established protocols for preventing these side effects, while veterinary medicine does not. The objective of this research is to establish a baseline regarding current standard of care to determine how veterinary specialists are managing CINV in dogs receiving chemotherapy.

Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side effect of chemotherapeutic treatment experienced by dogs that can lower quality of life and functionality. These symptoms are likewise found in people receiving chemotherapy; however, human oncology has well-established protocols for preventing these side effects, while veterinary medicine does not. The objective of this research is to establish a baseline regarding current standard of care to determine how veterinary specialists are managing CINV in dogs receiving chemotherapy.

Materials & Methods: This research will be conducted through an online survey that will be sent via listserv to approximately 1800 veterinary specialists who utilize chemotherapy to treat dogs with cancer. The survey will inquire whether or not they accompany the most common chemotherapy treatments with prophylactic antiemetic therapy in order to prevent vomiting in dogs on Day 1 and Days 2-5 as well as to estimate the likelihood of vomiting expected during the given time periods. The veterinary specialists will then be asked to depict what types of antiemetic therapies they use to prophylactically or reactively treat vomiting. Finally, the veterinary specialists will be asked to indicate the most common appetite stimulants they use in treatment of inappetence for dogs receiving chemotherapy.

Results: The results are pending. IRB exemption has been submitted. Test runs to verify readability of the survey are underway currently. The survey should be sent out mid-March and the responses should be received early to mid-April.

Conclusion: Due to a lack of available results, the conclusion of this research is yet to be determined.

Comparing Simple and Ordinary Kriging Methods For 2015 Iowa Precipitation

Caleb Wood, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

The difference between simple kriging (SK) and ordinary kriging (OK) is the reliance on the assumption of stationarity. This study tested the importance of this assumption for creating accurate, continuous maps of Iowa precipitation for 2015. Spatial interpolation is a process in which unobserved locations in a particular geographic region are estimated by using the observed points nearby. Stationarity is defined by the mean and distribution of the data remaining constant. SK relies on this assumption while OK does not. In this study, these predictive tools estimated annual precipitation for unobserved locations across the state from a limited number of observed locations. The inability to measure a variable at all geographic locations is a common problem in the natural sciences. Precipitation maps were produced in ArcMap using SK and OK. In addition, a difference map was calculated to quantitatively compare the estimations made by the two interpolation methods across the study area. Although the difference map does highlight differences in the precipitation patterns estimated by SK and OK, the deviation proves to be minor for the sum of the entire 2015 year. Therefore, the assumption of stationarity had only a slight influence on the spatial interpolation of 2015 Iowa precipitation.

Design and Manufacturing of a Flat-Plate Heat Pipe with Biphilic Surfaces

David Bis, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

The objective of this project is to design and manufacture a flat-plate heat pipe capable of showing the fluid flow, the temperature distribution throughout the device, and determining the rate of heat transfer inside the system. The application of surfaces with modified wettability in phase change heat-transfer devices, such as a heat pipe, improve their heat transfer capabilities by facilitating the boiling and condensation of a working fluid [1]. These surfaces of modified wettability grant the surface biphilic properties. The heat pipe is designed to have a replaceable surface of modified wettability. The heat pipe will contain a glass viewing panel on the top to observe the fluid flow inside the system, while a viewing panel will be on the bottom to allow for qualitative observation off the heat flow with an infrared camera. The heat transfer capabilities will be quantified with thermocouples measuring the change in temperature of the cooling chamber fluid. The heat pipe is expected to improve the hea...

Developing a Milk Quality Program for a Dairy Herd

Sabrina Portner, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

A successful dairy farm develops individualized mastitis prevention and treatment programs using the milk quality profile of their herd. Port-Haven Dairy’s 230 Brown Swiss milking cow herd’s monthly DHIA somatic cell count data was used to select cows requiring milk sampling. Each quarter of selected cows and cows with clinical mastitis were sampled following a CMT paddle test. Milk samples were cultured and organisms that grew were identified visually and with subsequent tests. A composite sample was also cultured from each fresh cow to test for mycoplasma organisms. Eight positive staphylococcus aureus cows and zero positive mycoplasma cows were found. Two trials of sampling determined that the prevalent mastitis organisms in the herd included environmental streptococcus and skin staphylococcus. Using antibiotic sensitivity results, a treatment program was established for the Staphylococcus aureus cows using Pirsue. The predominant environmental organisms lead to the examination of milking procedures, the barn environment, and teat end callouses. These results directed the formation of immediate herd goals including eliminating mycoplasma threats and keeping the bulk tank somatic cell count below 300,000. Increasing the square footage per cow in each barn to decrease environmental organisms and somatic cell count stands as a long term goal.

Foaming Agents for Drug Delivery to Treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Martin Asama, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Foaming Agents for Drug Delivery to Treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease Abstract:About 1.6 million Americans suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), a condition that includes Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (2). Treatment of this condition focuses on reducing the inflammation caused by IBD either through anti inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants (4). Many times it is preferable to deliver these drugs topically, and foams provide several benefits over the common liquid enemas (as noted in Malchow 2002)(3), Furthermore, several foam products are already on the market to treat colitis including foams containing Mesalazine and Budesonide (1). Our experiment focuses on formulating an optimal foaming solution for lower intestinal tract drug delivery. In addition to clinical treatment, we hope these foams will help researchers test new therapies for IBD and other disorders affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract.For our research, we tested solutions containing PEG or alginate and two foaming agent...

Investigating the expression of sodium channels in retinal ganglion cells

Bailey Mooney, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Recent studies estimate that there are at least 30 different types of retinal ganglion cell in the mouse eye. These cells are responsible for the connection between the eye and the brain and, therefore, have important functions in image formation. In addition, these are the cells that die in glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness. Even though the 30 types have been characterized by their physiology, the genetics of each type is unknown. This includes those genes that distinguish one type from another. The goal of our project is to begin to characterize the differences between these cells on a genetic level. In the lab, there is a mouse that has been engineered to express a red fluorescent protein in 8 different types of ganglion cells. Previously, students isolated red cells from the mouse retinas and identified sets of mRNAs that were expressed in each cell. Through these mRNAs, predictions have been made as to which genes define which ganglion cells. However, since the number of cells analyzed by this method was small, larger scale validations need to be performed. Our objective was to take genes that were identified in this initial screen and analyze their expression in retinal ganglion cells in much more detail.

Pt-Zn Intermetallic Compounds for Heterogenous Catalysis

Sydney Johnston, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Efficient catalysts are a pre-requisite in sustainable energy-driven industries of the future. In the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol the industrial catalyst, copper-chromite, is commonly used. However, the process of producing the furfuryl alcohol is inefficient because the catalyst is not sufficiently durable and has to be continually replaced or regenerated. Additionally copper chromite also creates toxic chromium that is harmful to the environment. The research presented here looks at creating nanoscale intermetallic nanoparticles used in the hydrogenation of furfural selectively to furfuryl alcohol when Pt-Zn intermetallic compounds are used. A mesoporous silica shell is used to address the problem of particles aggregating when forming the intermetallic compound. The silica shell has shown no disadvantages in the processes, but further promotes the formation of the intermetallic compound. These results are promising towards the use of intermetallic compounds to promote selectivit...

The Development of a Virtual Sensor in Glucose Monitoring for Non-Insulin Dependent People

Sophia Masters, Iowa State University
Sarah Jacobson, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

The project involves an Android application that acts as a continuous-time monitor of glucose levels for people with Type II diabetes. Our objective was to get information from a glucose lancet meter to automatically upload via Bluetooth into the application. This allows a person to easily monitor their insulin levels without manually inputting glucose levels into the application. The glucose meter used was a ForaCare Test N’ Go system. To aid in the Bluetooth process, we were granted open access to the glucose meter from Fora Care. The process involved using the programming language of Java in the Android software developer to implement the Bluetooth application. Because the app will be able to automatically upload the user’s glucose readings from their meter, it will make insulin measurement management simpler for the user. This Bluetooth component was important to the final development of the project. The virtual sensor takes several factors into account, including blood glucose readings and meal size, and...

The Molecular Profiles that Define Specific Retinal Ganglion Cells

Marnie Rechtzigel, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Recent studies estimate that there are at least 30 different types of retinal ganglion cell in the mouse eye. These cells are responsible for the connection between the eye and the brain and, therefore, have important functions in image formation. In addition, these are the cells that die in glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness. Even though the 30 types have been characterized by their physiology, the genetics of each type is unknown. This includes those genes that distinguish one type from another. The goal of our project is to begin to characterize the differences between these cells on a genetic level. In the lab, there is a mouse that has been engineered to express a red fluorescent protein in 8 different types of ganglion cells. Previously, students isolated red cells from the mouse retinas and identified sets of mRNAs that were expressed in each cell. Through these mRNAs, predictions have been made as to which genes define which ganglion cells. However, since the number of cells analyzed by this method was small, larger scale validations need to be performed. Our objective was to take genes that were identified in this initial screen and analyze their expression in retinal ganglion cells in much more detail.

Using LabView for Signal Processing and Noise Reduction for Flow Cytometry

Jacob Feddersen, Iowa State University

12:00 AM

Flow cytometry is a method by which microparticles and cells in a stream of fluid can be measured. Most currently available cytometers are very large and expensive because they require equipment such as lasers and optics. Our goal was to create a basic lightweight, inexpensive cytometer. The sensor works by passing the fluid with the particles through a specially designed microchannel that forces the particles to flow through in single file. The particles are measured by taking into account their optical properties; an LED of a specific frequency is shined on the particles which excites them, causing them to emit light of another specific frequency. This light can then be measured to detect the particles. Currently, the system is built and operational but suffers from excessive electrical noise. To mitigate the noise, we have used shielding to eliminate as much external interference as possible. In addition, we implemented data filtering in LabView to further reduce noise. Although these measures have drastic...