Start Date

30-11-2006 12:00 AM

Description

Soybean viruses have become an increasing problem in Iowa soybeans since the late 1990's. Losses due to virus disease include both decreased yield and seed quality conferred by mottling of seed coats or hilum bleeding. The principle viruses involved are Bean pod mottle (BPMV) and Soybean mosaic viruses (SMV). Of the two, BPMV has been by far the greater problem in Iowa. Unfortunately, the two viruses cannot be differentiated based upon symptoms. Both viruses cause similar foliar symptoms and seed coat mottling. However, the viruses belong to different virus families and have different insect vectors. The BPMV is primarily vectored by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) and SMV by at least 32 different aphid species, including the newly introduced soybean aphid (Hill et al., 2001), in a non-persistent manner. The two viruses can cause significant yield loss with estimates ranging from 8- 35% for SMV and up to 52% for BPMV In addition, synergistic interaction between the two viruses can cause loss that is more than additive, ranging up to 75%. Both viruses can be transmitted through seed with rates for SMV approximating 0- 5% in most commercial varieties and for BPMV less than 0.1% (Hill, 1999; Lin and Hill, 1983). For both viruses, mottling of seed coats is a poor indicator of virus presence in seed. A previous study showed that correlation coefficients between amount of SMV and seed coat mottling was dependent upon variety and ranged from 0.12 to 0.80 (Bryant et al., 1982). For BPMV, data showed that, even for a single variety, the correlation between amount of BPMV and seed coat mottling varied based upon planting date and year (Table l) (Krell et al., 2005).

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Nov 30th, 12:00 AM

Virus in Your Beans - What to Do?

Soybean viruses have become an increasing problem in Iowa soybeans since the late 1990's. Losses due to virus disease include both decreased yield and seed quality conferred by mottling of seed coats or hilum bleeding. The principle viruses involved are Bean pod mottle (BPMV) and Soybean mosaic viruses (SMV). Of the two, BPMV has been by far the greater problem in Iowa. Unfortunately, the two viruses cannot be differentiated based upon symptoms. Both viruses cause similar foliar symptoms and seed coat mottling. However, the viruses belong to different virus families and have different insect vectors. The BPMV is primarily vectored by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) and SMV by at least 32 different aphid species, including the newly introduced soybean aphid (Hill et al., 2001), in a non-persistent manner. The two viruses can cause significant yield loss with estimates ranging from 8- 35% for SMV and up to 52% for BPMV In addition, synergistic interaction between the two viruses can cause loss that is more than additive, ranging up to 75%. Both viruses can be transmitted through seed with rates for SMV approximating 0- 5% in most commercial varieties and for BPMV less than 0.1% (Hill, 1999; Lin and Hill, 1983). For both viruses, mottling of seed coats is a poor indicator of virus presence in seed. A previous study showed that correlation coefficients between amount of SMV and seed coat mottling was dependent upon variety and ranged from 0.12 to 0.80 (Bryant et al., 1982). For BPMV, data showed that, even for a single variety, the correlation between amount of BPMV and seed coat mottling varied based upon planting date and year (Table l) (Krell et al., 2005).

 

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