Document Type


Publication Date

September 2015

Journal or Book Title

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 2015




This study investigates the influence of time delay on user emotion, arousal, and satisfaction in humanrobotinteraction (HRI). Time delay is a gap between an input from a user and the corresponding feedbackresponse from the system, and its negative consequence on performance has been documented in variousareas including psychology and HRI. On the contrary, the effects of time delay on user emotion andsatisfaction have been difficult to establish due to the fluctuations in the emotional aspect of thephysiological state of the user. In this study, the hypothesis of whether time delay during robot vehicleoperation increases user arousal and negative emotions while lowering user satisfaction was tested.Participants were asked to remote-control a robot vehicle to navigate different mazes in a remote location.Time delay was manipulated by introducing lags into system feedback. Subjective and objective measuresincluded emotion tracking through face recognition, and electrodermal activity (EDA). User frustration,anger, and arousal increased while user satisfaction decreased. A better understanding of how time delayinfluences user’s emotion and how change in emotion is expressed in physiological signals would be ofcrucial importance to designing an affect-aware robotic systems that have the ability to appropriatelyrespond to user emotional state.


Copyright Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2015. Posted with permission.