Campus Units

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Psychology, Gerontology, Human Computer Interaction, Virtual Reality Applications Center

Document Type


Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education



First Page


Last Page


Research Focus Area(s)

Ergonomics and Human Factors, Information Engineering




The goal of this research was the development of a practical architecture for the computer-based tutoring of teams. This article examines the relationship of team behaviors as antecedents to successful team performance and learning during adaptive instruction guided by Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Adaptive instruction is a training or educational experience tailored by artificially-intelligent, computer-based tutors with the goal of optimizing learner outcomes (e.g., knowledge and skill acquisition, performance, enhanced retention, accelerated learning, or transfer of skills from instructional environments to work environments). The core contribution of this research was the identification of behavioral markers associated with the antecedents of team performance and learning thus enabling the development and refinement of teamwork models in ITS architectures. Teamwork focuses on the coordination, cooperation, and communication among individuals to achieve a shared goal. For ITSs to optimally tailor team instruction, tutors must have key insights about both the team and the learners on that team. To aid the modeling of teams, we examined the literature to evaluate the relationship of teamwork behaviors (e.g., communication, cooperation, coordination, cognition, leadership/coaching, and conflict) with team outcomes (learning, performance, satisfaction, and viability) as part of a large-scale meta-analysis of the ITS, team training, and team performance literature. While ITSs have been used infrequently to instruct teams, the goal of this meta-analysis make team tutoring more ubiquitous by: identifying significant relationships between team behaviors and effective performance and learning outcomes; developing instructional guidelines for team tutoring based on these relationships; and applying these team tutoring guidelines to the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT), an open source architecture for authoring, delivering, managing, and evaluating adaptive instructional tools and methods. In doing this, we have designed a domain-independent framework for the adaptive instruction of teams.


This article is published as Sottilare, Robert A., C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Anne M. Sinatra, Joan H. Johnston, and Stephen B. Gilbert. "Designing adaptive instruction for teams: A meta-analysis." International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 28 (2018): 225–264. DOI:10.1007/s40593-017-0146-z.


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