Campus Units

Aerospace Engineering, Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Psychology, Gerontology, Human Computer Interaction, Virtual Reality Applications Center

Document Type


Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Computers in Human Behavior



First Page


Research Focus Area(s)

​Operations Research, Ergonomics and Human Factors




This paper describes the development and evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) for pairs of learners working collaboratively to monitor an area. In the Surveillance Team Tutor (STT), learners performed a surveillance task in a virtual environment, communicating to track hostile moving soldiers. This collaborative problem solving task required significant communication to achieve the common goal of perfect surveillance. In a pilot evaluation, 16 two-person teams performed the task within one of three feedback conditions (Individual, Team, or None) across four trials each. The STT used a unique approach to filtering feedback so that teams in both individual and team conditions received a similar amount of feedback. In one performance measure, Team condition participants made fewer errors in one task than those in other conditions, though at a potential cost of mental workload. Feedback condition also significantly affected participants' subjective rating of both their own performance and their teammate’s. This ITTS is one of the first automated team tutoring systems that provided real-time feedback during task execution. Recommendations are offered for the design of the optimal team task for future ITTSs that offer tutoring for small teams performing collaborative problem solving.


This article is published as Ostrander, Alec, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, and Eliot Winer. "Evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System for a Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance." Computers in Human Behavior 104 (2020): 105873. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.01.006.


Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.



File Format