Campus Units

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Psychology, Gerontology, Human Computer Interaction, Virtual Reality Applications Center

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Publication Version

Published Version

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Journal or Book Title

Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction





First Page


Research Focus Area(s)

Ergonomics and Human Factors




As the variety of possible interactions with virtual reality (VR) continues to expand, researchers need a way to relate these interactions to users' needs and goals in ways that advance understanding. Existing efforts have focused mainly on the symmetric use of technology, which excludes a rising form of interaction known as asymmetric VR, in which co-located participants use different interfaces to interact with a shared environment. There must be a clear path to creating asymmetric VR systems that are rooted in previous work from several fields, as these systems have use cases in education, hybrid reality teams (using VR and other technologies to interact online and face to face), accessibility, as well as entertainment. Currently, there is no systematic way to characterize 1) how a system may be asymmetric, 2) how the different mediation technology and affordances within asymmetric VR support (or do not support) users' goals, and 3) the relationships and collaborative capabilities between users of these different technologies. In this paper, the authors use a scoping review to explore relevant conceptual frameworks for asymmetric interaction, mediation technology, and computer supported cooperative work to clarify the dimensions of asymmetry and synthesize the literature into a Composite framework for Asymmetric VR (CAVR). The paper concludes with suggestions of ways to test and expand the framework in order to guide future research as it identifies the most-beneficial interaction paradigms for co-located asymmetric VR.


This is the definitive version of an article published by ACM in Ouverson, Kaitlyn M., and Stephen B. Gilbert. "A Composite Framework of Co-located Asymmetric Virtual Reality." Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 5, no. CSCW1 (2021): 5. DOI: 10.1145/3449079. Posted with permission.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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The Authors



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