Campus Units

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Psychology, Gerontology, Human Computer Interaction, Virtual Reality Applications Center

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Volume 6 - Team Learning and Taskwork

First Page


Last Page


Research Focus Area(s)

Ergonomics and Human Factors


Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been constructed for many reasons by numerous groups of researchers and practitioners. The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) was created in part to unify disparate research into a commonly shared research output. Unlike individual tutoring, however, few groups have constructed an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) (Robert A Sottilare, 2018; R.A. Sottilare, Holden, Brawner, & Goldberg, 2011). While GIFT was created in order to address the problems of individual tutoring systems, small group (i.e., squad level) team tutoring is one of its goals, and it was modified to support the instruction of teams of individuals. These modifications were consistent with the original GIFT design goals for individual tutoring systems (individual assessment/feedback files), but this ultimately proved cumbersome for the construction of a reusable set of modules and processes for teams. This paper reports on the experience of constructing an ITTS software architecture using GIFT, but expands on the challenges encountered during the design process, and what could be done differently during redesign. Perhaps more important than discussion of the original team tutoring design or an improved team tutoring design is a discussion of the reasoning behind using certain principles and implementations. As among the first to try to construct a reusable team tutoring structure, the lessons learned should be considered as a basis for future implementations.


This chapter is published as Brawner, Keith, Anne M. Sinatra, and Stephen M. Gilbert. "Lessons Learned Creating a Team Tutoring Architecture: Design Reconsiderations." In Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Volume 6 - Team Learning and Taskwork (A.C. Graesser, X. Hu, A.M. Sinatra, and R.A. Sottilare, eds.). Orlando, FL: U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2018, pages 201-215.


Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.



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