Density is an important component of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavement quality and long-term performance. Insufficient density of an in-place HMA pavement is the most frequently cited construction-related performance problem.
This study evaluated the use of electromagnetic gauges to nondestructively determine densities. Field and laboratory measurements were taken with two electromagnetic gauges—a PaveTracker and a Pavement Quality Indicator (PQI). Test data were collected in the field during and after paving operations and also in a laboratory on field mixes compacted in the lab.
This study revealed that several mix- and project-specific factors affect electromagnetic gauge readings. Consequently, the implementation of these gauges will likely need to be done utilizing a test strip on a project- and mix-specific basis to appropriately identify an adjustment factor for the specific electromagnetic gauge being used for quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) testing. The substantial reduction in testing time that results from employing electromagnetic gauges rather than coring makes it possible for more readings to be used in the QC/QA process with real-time information without increasing the testing costs.
IHRB Project TR-547
Iowa Highway Research Board; Iowa Department of Transportation
Kvasnak, Andrea N.; Williams, R. Christopher; Ceylan, Halil; and Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan, "Investigation of Electromagnetic Gauges for Determining In-Place HMA Density" (2007). InTrans Project Reports. 13.