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For years, specifications have focused on the water to cement ratio (w/cm) and strength of concrete, despite the majority of the volume of a concrete mixture consisting of aggregate. An aggregate distribution of roughly 60% coarse aggregate and 40% fine aggregate, regardless of gradation and availability of aggregates, has been used as the norm for a concrete pavement mixture. Efforts to reduce the costs and improve sustainability of concrete mixtures have pushed owners to pay closer attention to mixtures with a well-graded aggregate particle distribution. In general, workability has many different variables that are independent of gradation, such as paste volume and viscosity, aggregate’s shape, and texture. A better understanding of how the properties of aggregates affect the workability of concrete is needed. The effects of aggregate characteristics on concrete properties, such as ability to be vibrated, strength, and resistivity, were investigated using mixtures in which the paste content and the w/cm were held constant. The results showed the different aggregate proportions, the maximum nominal aggregate sizes, and combinations of different aggregates all had an impact on the performance in the strength, slump, and box test.

Report Number

InTrans Project 09-353; Iowa DOT TPF-5(205); DTFH61-06-H-00011 Work Plan 25

Granting Agencies

Iowa Department of Transportation;

Federal Highway Administration



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1 MB